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True Knot of the Umbilical Cord

True Knot of the Umbilical Cord

Recently I was at a lovely homebirth. Baby was born into his parents arms after a short but intense labour. No problems during the labour where identified. Once the woman and her baby were snuggled together and comfortable, I set to the task of checking the placenta under the women’s watchful glaze. Quickly we both saw that there was a true knot of the umbilical cord. I have seen quite a few true knots of the umbilical cord over the years – all of which have been identified after the birth and none of which were associated with a significant adverse outcome. I was interested in this finding as a variation on normal but the woman was reasonably concerned and wanted to know what were the implications for her baby in having a true knot of the umbilical cord?

I sat there and thought about the answer I would give. Certainly I was aware that a true knot of the umbilical cord can cause the baby stress in labour and in the worst case scenario can cause the death of a baby. But my experiences haven’t yielded any poor outcomes so I wondered how significant is it? We discussed my positive experiences and my understanding that it is associated with poor outcomes in the literature. We also talked about the fact that I didn’t know the rates of poor outcomes, so I promised to do a bit of research for the woman. Following is a summary of the information I found.

Problems with the baby’s umbilical cord can cause abnormalities of the baby’s heart rate in labour (both major and minor) and can be a cause of the baby dying before birth (Kaplan, 1996). However the umbilical cord contains special substance called Wharton's jelly and this protects the blood vessels of the cord even if a true knot occurs. The protective function of Wharton’s jelly will, most of the time, prevent a tight knot from forming, and stops the knot from interfering with the circulation of blood going to the baby. It is not common that a significant problem occurs, which is congruent with what I have noticed in my own midwifery practice.

True Knot in Umbilical Cord 2

Knots rarely tighten before labour but can do so when the baby starts descending down the birth canal. While significant problems are rare, they can occur. Where a baby has a true knot in their cord there is a definite increase in the risk of death before labour begins in comparison with babies who do not have a knot in their cord. During labour there are an increase in the number of babies who show worrying heart rate changes and those babies that pass meconium liquor (this is where the baby does a poo in the waters before birth). There is also a four-fold increase in the number of babies who die before birth. Because of complications these babies are more likely to be born by caesarean than a baby that doesn’t have a knot in their cord.

The literature indicates that a true knot of the umbilical cord occurs in between 0.3 to 2.2 percent of all births. The most commonly quoted statistic I found was 1.25 percent. Most true knots are discovered after the birth but with new ultrasound techniques some are discovered during the pregnancy. The following circumstances increase the chance of a true knot forming:

  • Male babies
  • Twins
  • Women who’ve given birth before
  • Too much amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios)
  • Small babies
  • Long umbilical cords

True knots of the umbilical cord are formed when the baby moves through a loop or loops of cord while being active in the uterus, and most form very early in the pregnancy (Heifetz, 1996; Hershkovitz et al., 2001; Ramón Y Cajal & Martínez, 2004; Semchyshyn, 1973). It is important to note that babies who suffer temporary stress during labour as a result of a true not usually recover shortly after birth. A true knot is not an automatic reason to plan a caesarean birth (Airas & Heinonen, 2002). In doing my research I didn’t find very many research articles on true knot of the umbilical cord – so some of this information may be the opinion of health professionals rather than fact. More research and understanding is needed.

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Written 13 March 2014 for www.pregnancy.com.au as part of the ‘Musings of a Midwife’ series.


Airas, U., & Heinonen, S. (2002). Clinical significance of true umbilical knots: A population-based analysis. American Journal of Perinatology, 19(3), 127–132.

Heifetz, S. a. (1996). The umbilical cord: obstetrically important lesions. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39(3), 571–587. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8862884

Hershkovitz, R., Silberstein, T., Sheiner, E., Shoham-Vardi, I., Holcberg, G., Katz, M., & Mazor, M. (2001). Risk factors associated with true knots of the umbilical cord. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 98(1), 36–39.

Kaplan, C. G. (1996). Postpartum examination of the placenta. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39(3), 535–548. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8862882

Ramón Y Cajal, C. L., & Martínez, R. O. (2004). Prenatal diagnosis of true knot of the umbilical cord. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 23(1), 99–100. doi:10.1002/uog.900

Semchyshyn, S. (1973). True knot of the umbilical cord in two consecutive pregnancies. CMA Journal, 6, 1973.

Jane Palmer is a private practice midwife and international board certified lactation consultant. Through her company Pregnancy, Birth and Beyond Jane provides midwifery, childbirth education and lactation services. For over 22 years, Jane has supported women and their families from preconception to the year following birth. Registering as a midwife in 1997 Jane went on to be one of the first Medicare-eligible midwives in Australia, Jane currently provides midwifery care in collaboration with the group practice Midwives @ Sydney and Beyond, caring for women planning to give birth at home or in hospital. In March 2012 Jane opened the PBB Health Centre in North Parramatta when midwives, general practitioners and allied health professionals provide services to the local community.


10 comment(s) on this page. Add your own comment below.

sarah minnis
Aug 28, 2014 2:12pm [ 1 ]

My baby boy passed away at 38 weeks to a true knot in his umbilical cord

Jane Palmer
Aug 30, 2014 5:59am [ 2 ]

Hi Sarah - I am very sorry for the loss of your baby boy. I hope this article helped a little with your knowledge of true knots.

Peggy Cochran
Aug 30, 2014 9:51pm [ 3 ]

I had twins 35 years ago and didn't know I was having them until on the delivery table....The first one was small 5 lbs. 3 oz. but the second was larger 6lbs. 5 oz. and forceps had to be used...The doctor kept saying there was one placenta but they are not identical...No problem with knots to my knowledge, but your article was "very interesting"...

Liz Larson
Sep 12, 2014 1:30pm [ 4 ]

My baby girl died at 38 1/2 weeks due to a true tight knot. Up until her death, her scores were perfect. I lie here now, unable to sleep cuz I miss my Zailee .

Sep 15, 2014 9:27am [ 5 ]

My middle son was a home birth and was born with the cord around his neck and also had a very tight true knot in his cord. You know when you have a shoelace and it has such a tight knot in it can't be undone? It was like that. The midwives said I was incredibly lucky that he was born alive and well and It must've happened when he was tiny as he didn't have a very long cord at all. He is seven now and mostly well, however he does have some mild to moderate difficulty with the physical act of writing and drawing and also difficulties with telling his left from his right as well as other coordination difficulties. Although we cannot know for sure the tight cord knot was a contributing factor it seems a strong possibility. We got off very mildly though. It was never picked up on ultrasound and I never noticed any decrease in foetal movements.

Sep 30, 2014 4:52pm [ 6 ]

My first child was also born with a true knot in his cord. I knew something wasn't quite right as I'd had to attend the hospital several times due to decreased movement. The cause was never investigated, I was never even offered a scan, and after a traumatic birth were his heart rate dropped and he had to be born via emergency ventouse delivery we discovered a knot in his cord. I am so grateful that nothing terrible happened to the baby and I firmly believe more needs to be known about true knots. Thank you for your article.

Oct 28, 2014 11:58am [ 7 ]

We lost our beautiful sweet baby boy Jaxon at 36 weeks 2days. Dr. Jason Collin wrote a book on umbilical cord accidents. There where so many red flags with my son. Should be taken very serous if red flags come up. The pain is unbearable I miss my son and still have not held a baby since I lost him

Nov 1, 2014 8:58am [ 8 ]

We lost our baby at 33 weeks to a true knot. We had a scan the day before as the baby was restless, I have even found out since that this was a doppler scan, which shows blood flow. And the knot was still not detected. She died the next day.

Louise Larkum
Nov 5, 2014 9:20pm [ 9 ]

My daughter Taia was born 2 weeks late at 9lb 10.5oz with a true knot in her cord. I didn't understand the implications of this until I had quite a few visits from trainees and doctors explaining what had happened. She was very floppy after birth and suffered with benign hypotonia in her early years. I've no idea if this is a characteristic of true knot or oxygen reduction. I am very grateful to have her with us and i'm so sad for others of you that have lost your little ones. Taia turns 13 in february and I still find the need to process what happened occasionally.

Nov 8, 2014 8:24am [ 10 ]

My Baby Boy was born last Wednesday by an Emergency C-section, having been left for too long when my waters had broken and then being induced, which lead to me developing an infection. However I was told that my labour might have been very difficult anyway and ended up with a C-section as my little boy had a true knot I his cord as well.

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