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True Knot of the Umbilical Cord

True Knot of the Umbilical Cord

Recently I was at a lovely homebirth. Baby was born into his parents arms after a short but intense labour. No problems during the labour where identified. Once the woman and her baby were snuggled together and comfortable, I set to the task of checking the placenta under the women’s watchful glaze. Quickly we both saw that there was a true knot of the umbilical cord. I have seen quite a few true knots of the umbilical cord over the years – all of which have been identified after the birth and none of which were associated with a significant adverse outcome. I was interested in this finding as a variation on normal but the woman was reasonably concerned and wanted to know what were the implications for her baby in having a true knot of the umbilical cord?

I sat there and thought about the answer I would give. Certainly I was aware that a true knot of the umbilical cord can cause the baby stress in labour and in the worst case scenario can cause the death of a baby. But my experiences haven’t yielded any poor outcomes so I wondered how significant is it? We discussed my positive experiences and my understanding that it is associated with poor outcomes in the literature. We also talked about the fact that I didn’t know the rates of poor outcomes, so I promised to do a bit of research for the woman. Following is a summary of the information I found.

Problems with the baby’s umbilical cord can cause abnormalities of the baby’s heart rate in labour (both major and minor) and can be a cause of the baby dying before birth (Kaplan, 1996). However the umbilical cord contains special substance called Wharton's jelly and this protects the blood vessels of the cord even if a true knot occurs. The protective function of Wharton’s jelly will, most of the time, prevent a tight knot from forming, and stops the knot from interfering with the circulation of blood going to the baby. It is not common that a significant problem occurs, which is congruent with what I have noticed in my own midwifery practice.

True Knot in Umbilical Cord 2

Knots rarely tighten before labour but can do so when the baby starts descending down the birth canal. While significant problems are rare, they can occur. Where a baby has a true knot in their cord there is a definite increase in the risk of death before labour begins in comparison with babies who do not have a knot in their cord. During labour there are an increase in the number of babies who show worrying heart rate changes and those babies that pass meconium liquor (this is where the baby does a poo in the waters before birth). There is also a four-fold increase in the number of babies who die before birth. Because of complications these babies are more likely to be born by caesarean than a baby that doesn’t have a knot in their cord.

The literature indicates that a true knot of the umbilical cord occurs in between 0.3 to 2.2 percent of all births. The most commonly quoted statistic I found was 1.25 percent. Most true knots are discovered after the birth but with new ultrasound techniques some are discovered during the pregnancy. The following circumstances increase the chance of a true knot forming:

  • Male babies
  • Twins
  • Women who’ve given birth before
  • Too much amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios)
  • Small babies
  • Long umbilical cords

True knots of the umbilical cord are formed when the baby moves through a loop or loops of cord while being active in the uterus, and most form very early in the pregnancy (Heifetz, 1996; Hershkovitz et al., 2001; Ramón Y Cajal & Martínez, 2004; Semchyshyn, 1973). It is important to note that babies who suffer temporary stress during labour as a result of a true not usually recover shortly after birth. A true knot is not an automatic reason to plan a caesarean birth (Airas & Heinonen, 2002). In doing my research I didn’t find very many research articles on true knot of the umbilical cord – so some of this information may be the opinion of health professionals rather than fact. More research and understanding is needed.

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Written 13 March 2014 for www.pregnancy.com.au as part of the ‘Musings of a Midwife’ series.


Airas, U., & Heinonen, S. (2002). Clinical significance of true umbilical knots: A population-based analysis. American Journal of Perinatology, 19(3), 127–132.

Heifetz, S. a. (1996). The umbilical cord: obstetrically important lesions. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39(3), 571–587. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8862884

Hershkovitz, R., Silberstein, T., Sheiner, E., Shoham-Vardi, I., Holcberg, G., Katz, M., & Mazor, M. (2001). Risk factors associated with true knots of the umbilical cord. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 98(1), 36–39.

Kaplan, C. G. (1996). Postpartum examination of the placenta. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39(3), 535–548. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8862882

Ramón Y Cajal, C. L., & Martínez, R. O. (2004). Prenatal diagnosis of true knot of the umbilical cord. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 23(1), 99–100. doi:10.1002/uog.900

Semchyshyn, S. (1973). True knot of the umbilical cord in two consecutive pregnancies. CMA Journal, 6, 1973.

Jane Palmer is a private practice midwife and international board certified lactation consultant. Through her company Pregnancy, Birth and Beyond Jane provides midwifery, childbirth education and lactation services. For over 22 years, Jane has supported women and their families from preconception to the year following birth. Registering as a midwife in 1997 Jane went on to be one of the first Medicare-eligible midwives in Australia, Jane currently provides midwifery care in collaboration with the group practice Midwives @ Sydney and Beyond, caring for women planning to give birth at home or in hospital. In March 2012 Jane opened the PBB Health Centre in North Parramatta when midwives, general practitioners and allied health professionals provide services to the local community.


35 comment(s) on this page. Add your own comment below.

sarah minnis
Aug 28, 2014 2:12pm [ 1 ]

My baby boy passed away at 38 weeks to a true knot in his umbilical cord

Jane Palmer
Aug 30, 2014 5:59am [ 2 ]

Hi Sarah - I am very sorry for the loss of your baby boy. I hope this article helped a little with your knowledge of true knots.

Peggy Cochran
Aug 30, 2014 9:51pm [ 3 ]

I had twins 35 years ago and didn't know I was having them until on the delivery table....The first one was small 5 lbs. 3 oz. but the second was larger 6lbs. 5 oz. and forceps had to be used...The doctor kept saying there was one placenta but they are not identical...No problem with knots to my knowledge, but your article was "very interesting"...

Liz Larson
Sep 12, 2014 1:30pm [ 4 ]

My baby girl died at 38 1/2 weeks due to a true tight knot. Up until her death, her scores were perfect. I lie here now, unable to sleep cuz I miss my Zailee .

Sep 15, 2014 9:27am [ 5 ]

My middle son was a home birth and was born with the cord around his neck and also had a very tight true knot in his cord. You know when you have a shoelace and it has such a tight knot in it can't be undone? It was like that. The midwives said I was incredibly lucky that he was born alive and well and It must've happened when he was tiny as he didn't have a very long cord at all. He is seven now and mostly well, however he does have some mild to moderate difficulty with the physical act of writing and drawing and also difficulties with telling his left from his right as well as other coordination difficulties. Although we cannot know for sure the tight cord knot was a contributing factor it seems a strong possibility. We got off very mildly though. It was never picked up on ultrasound and I never noticed any decrease in foetal movements.

Sep 30, 2014 4:52pm [ 6 ]

My first child was also born with a true knot in his cord. I knew something wasn't quite right as I'd had to attend the hospital several times due to decreased movement. The cause was never investigated, I was never even offered a scan, and after a traumatic birth were his heart rate dropped and he had to be born via emergency ventouse delivery we discovered a knot in his cord. I am so grateful that nothing terrible happened to the baby and I firmly believe more needs to be known about true knots. Thank you for your article.

Oct 28, 2014 11:58am [ 7 ]

We lost our beautiful sweet baby boy Jaxon at 36 weeks 2days. Dr. Jason Collin wrote a book on umbilical cord accidents. There where so many red flags with my son. Should be taken very serous if red flags come up. The pain is unbearable I miss my son and still have not held a baby since I lost him

Nov 1, 2014 8:58am [ 8 ]

We lost our baby at 33 weeks to a true knot. We had a scan the day before as the baby was restless, I have even found out since that this was a doppler scan, which shows blood flow. And the knot was still not detected. She died the next day.

Louise Larkum
Nov 5, 2014 9:20pm [ 9 ]

My daughter Taia was born 2 weeks late at 9lb 10.5oz with a true knot in her cord. I didn't understand the implications of this until I had quite a few visits from trainees and doctors explaining what had happened. She was very floppy after birth and suffered with benign hypotonia in her early years. I've no idea if this is a characteristic of true knot or oxygen reduction. I am very grateful to have her with us and i'm so sad for others of you that have lost your little ones. Taia turns 13 in february and I still find the need to process what happened occasionally.

Nov 8, 2014 8:24am [ 10 ]

My Baby Boy was born last Wednesday by an Emergency C-section, having been left for too long when my waters had broken and then being induced, which lead to me developing an infection. However I was told that my labour might have been very difficult anyway and ended up with a C-section as my little boy had a true knot I his cord as well.

Dec 5, 2014 2:03pm [ 11 ]

We just lost our baby girl today. My wife was scheduled for an induction today and during the day yesterday and into the night my wife was having contractions but the times were all over the place. Well late last night she had not felt any movement from the baby and contractions were gone. We went straight to the hospital with positive thoughts and when they could not find the heartbeat it was crushing. When she delivered we found out it was because of a tight knot in the cord. we are heartbroken that we have lost our little Sadie Bea. Along with the pain we are feeling it was so hard to tell our other 5 children. It's just horrible.

Dec 13, 2014 2:48am [ 12 ]

I was 40 weeks and my blood pressure was slightly raised. My doc induced by at about 7 or 8 cm after almost 10 hrs of labour the baby went into distress. She recovered but the doc was not convinced. She was born with a true know. . It was very tight. I'm very happy that the events to get birth led to a csection and she survived with no after effects. I don't wavy to think about what could have happened. We were blessed.

Gramma P
Jan 6, 2015 1:14pm [ 13 ]

Our daughter lost her beautiful baby girl 16 days before her due date. She had a healthy pregnancy with no complications but her baby died due to a cord accident. Why was there no sign of a problem six days before this tragedy when she had an ultrasound and her scores were perfect?

Jan 12, 2015 1:27pm [ 14 ]

My baby passed away at 39 weeks and 5 days due to a true knot in his cord...

Feb 8, 2015 3:11pm [ 15 ]

My grandson was born on 26 January 2015 by emergency C-section after a long labour , baby not descending, etc. When born they discovered 5 knots in one in his umbilical chord. But praise God, he is fine! My heart goes out to everyone who had lost their precious babies.

Matthew Ryan
Feb 20, 2015 4:23pm [ 16 ]

To Kevin and those that lost their babies I true knots... I am so sorry to read about your losses. It is absolutely devastating. I am 24 years old, and I was a true knot baby. The doctor said she had only seen a true knot twice in her career, and the other had baby passed away. My mother had to undergo an emergency c-section and I was fortunate to make it without any further complications. I am deeply saddened to read that so many babies do not make it. My heart goes out to all of you. :(

Feb 24, 2015 7:47pm [ 17 ]

Baby david was born 3 days ago at 41 weeks with a true knot. Decreased movements had led us to hostpital trips in previous weeks. Within the first 5 mins of being at the hospital and the baby being monitored his heart beat stopped for 2 minutes. I was rushed for samples to be taken from Davids head but the tests showed no abnormality. 3 hours into the labour the same thing happened again, a large contraction followed by his heart beat not recovering. This determined my C section to start immediately. Upon giving birth I was shown the placenta and a very tight true Knott. I was experiencing lots of decreased movements after week 38 and am glad that I insisted on arriving at the hospital on my birth day earlier than the staff wanted me to be there (waters had not broke yet) and was advised to wait). The doctors were very surprised at how much fluid I was carrying in my waters, and had to break my waters 3 times during labour. I am so sorry for everyone who has lost loved ones, my heart goes out to you. Thank you Jane for the study.

Mar 3, 2015 6:06am [ 18 ]

We lost our daughter Nora at 38.5 weeks just recently. She was born with the cord wrapped around her neck 3 times and she also had a very tight true knot. We are absolutely heartbroken. It is so alarming to me to hear that so many families are confronted with this issue and yet so little is offered medically in terms of detection and prevention. If anyone has any good resources for information on this please share. (I just ordered Dr. Collin's book.)

Apr 19, 2015 2:49am [ 19 ]

I was born with 3 true knots in my umbilical cord.

Apr 21, 2015 6:54pm [ 20 ]

My third baby was born 6 days early after a going into labour naturally. He was posterior and the labour was 32hrs. He had some changes in his heartrate during labour but none of us had ever seen or heard of a true knot before. After about 15 minutes of pushing he was born with a true knot about 3 inches from where the umbilical cord attaches to his belly button. I was instantly surprised then shocked because I realised instantly what could have been it was tight. My heart was so thankful that he was ok because the knot had been undetected. He is now 5 months old and hitting his milestones. To all those here that have lost a baby to a true knot or any other reason I am so sorry for your loss and I really think it is the most unfair and cruelest thing that can happen to a couple and families. You are the incredible people who manage to go on and my respect and empathy for you is never far from my mind No footprint is too small to leave an impression on our hearts.

Shamree Willis
Apr 25, 2015 6:49pm [ 21 ]

My daughter London was born yesterday. She is my fifth and the only one to have a true knot in her cord. The doctor immediately showed me the knot and said she was a lucky little girl. I have been reading up on true knots and I am shocked at how lucky she really is. I am so so sorry for the couples that lost their little ones to this situation. My heart explodes for you because I couldn't imagine losing my daughter. Thanks for sharing your stories as hard as it may have been for you to do so. Thanks for this study.

Apr 26, 2015 8:07am [ 22 ]

Our baby Eliott was born with 2 true knots in his cord But miraculously he was perfectly fine. The doctor and nurses were so shocked to see two knots they called in more staff to see it.

Apr 27, 2015 5:52pm [ 23 ]

I'm so sad for everyone. My son was an emergency c-section due to fetal distress. It was caught as I was being monitored for cholesostasis he had two true knots and it was wrapped around his neck twice. His heart rate went from 150 to 70 when he moved so I'm sure had I not had the very rare cholesostasis he wouldn't have made it. He's now 6 months and so perfect. I feel it's so tragic to loose babies to this. Heartbreaking

Aug 10, 2015 9:54am [ 24 ]

We lost our daughter Audrey at 37.1 weeks to a true knot. when no heartbeat was detected at my scan we didn't know the cause. We just knew she was gone. She was delivered by c-section that night and was absolutely perfect. If only it hadn't been for that knot she would be five weeks old today and in my arms. Words can't describe the devastation of this loss. I'm told there was nothing that could be done to prevent this occurring and they are freak accidents...

buffy osmer
Aug 29, 2015 12:07am [ 25 ]

My son Caleb was born Sept 1998. caleb was born with 2knots and wrapped around his neck twice. Dr's said oh he is fine, tho the whisked him away and wldnt let dad go along, Caleb was my easyest baby no crying all. Weened himself about 7 mths, looking back he was just different not as needy as my others,Caleb didnt talk until he was 4 and had real prblems with social queyd from other kids his age. Caleb isnow almost 17 struggles with school and has been diagosed with "A SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY" I really think there was some lack of oxygen during labor . Thanks for letting me share hoping all the best. Take care all Buffy.

Aug 30, 2015 9:02am [ 26 ]

Our daughter was born in May. She underwent a biophysical profile and non-stress test two days before and scored a 10 out of 10. We only went for these as I was approaching 42 weeks and under the care of a midwife so I had to. I had an anterior placenta so my entire pregnancy I did not feel many kicks or movements. She was not breathing once I pushed her out, the midwife bagged her and attached oxygen, and rescue had to be called. We spent 33 days in the NICU and are now home playing the wait and see as milestones come. She is on antiseizure meds and has some vision issues. Our future is unknown, but we are thankful our miracle daughter is here.

Sep 10, 2015 7:02pm [ 27 ]

We got our baby yesterday morning. He is one of the survivors of umbilical cord knot. We only came to 5 minutes before the birth when baby heartbeat went extremelynlow. Before that stata were all okay. Thank God, Sam is all good;

Nov 4, 2015 3:48pm [ 28 ]

We lost our twin boys at 22 weeks due to 2 true knots in the cord aswell as cord entanglement.Double Whammy. Poor things never stood a chance.

Nov 16, 2015 1:20pm [ 29 ]

After a healthy and safe delivery of my son, we were told that he was born with two true knots in his cord. One of our attending nurses said that she'd worked in labor and delivery for 25 years and had seen one true knot on two separate occasions and neither were "good outcomes". She said our outcome was truly remarkable. We are so thankful. I have concerns regarding our next pregnancy; is there any research that suggests that if you've had a child with a true knot(s), you are more likely to have another with a true knot(s)?

Nov 19, 2015 6:17pm [ 30 ]

My son was just born at 41 weeks with a tight true knot. He had meconium in my bag of waters and a slow heart rate. He was born emergency c section. A NST the day before showed perfect heart rate and movement. He is alive and in good health due to a quick and knowledgeable hospital staff.

Jan 14, 2016 9:34pm [ 31 ]

I never knew this even existed until my I loss my son at 32 weeks, yesterday. Sorry for all those who lost a child I understand

Ailsa Richardson
Feb 7, 2016 8:07pm [ 32 ]

I lost my little boy at 35+6 weeks on 20.11.15 due to a true knot in his cord

Joanne Fitzpatrick
Apr 14, 2016 9:05pm [ 33 ]

My fourth child was a normal delivery but had 2 true knots and the cord around is neck twice I'm one lucky parent he even made it but at 30 months he's was diagnosed with Autism severe learning difficulties and at 4 ADHD but I would change him for the world . I'm so so sorry to hear such very sad stories

Jun 14, 2016 8:43pm [ 34 ]

My daughter was born via caesarean section.I was 43 and had a large fibroid in my uterus which meant a natural birth was always going to be risky. Plus, she kept turning around and in the last week of her gestation period she was transverse. Because the fibroid was getting bigger, some Doctors, said no, while others said okay to a natural birth. Despite what the Hospital Doctors said, we thought it best to book a caesarean. On the day, some doctors were urging me to have a natural birth because she had turned around and her head was in the right position. But I didn't feel right. I was 43 , had a large fibroid and was now all prepped, and waiting, and I had a feeling that it was the right thing to do. So I decided to have a caesarean, anyway. It turned out that she had a knot in her umbilical cord - a true knot.. Luckily, I trusted my instincts and went ahead with the caesarean. We'll never know what might have happened. But we are very glad and happy that we have our little girl. We love her so much. After reading the stories on here, I am heartbroken for the loss of all those little lives, and I am at a loss for something to say to their parents. Love.

Jul 21, 2016 7:18pm [ 35 ]

My waters broke while at home at 36 weeks and all just with a sneeze while I was sat on the couch. I did not experience labor immediately and had to be induced after 10 hrs with no sign of any pain, all that time my bubs was monitored and had a very active heartbeat. It was only hrs after being induced that I went into labor and then delivered a healthy baby boy, to my surprise I only then noticed he also had a true knot in the cord. Sorry to hear about the little ones who did not make it, I know now that it was a true miracle.

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